A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture started around this time.

Defining characteristics of some early digital computers of the 1940s (In the history of computing hardware ) In the 1930s, they invented digital computers, and soon made them easier to program. The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (which later became IBM ) made his machines.

Historians disagree on which early machines are “computers”. Some people argue that this is the first programmable machine. This part of computer history is called the “history of automated calculation,” which is a fancy phrase for “the history of machines that make it easy for me to do this same maths problem over and over without making mistakes.”

Computer program s are designed or written by computer programmer s. A few programmers write programs in the computer’s own language called machine code Most programs are written using a programming language like C++ , Java , and Fortran These programming languages are more like the language with which one talks and writes every day. They only follow the instructions in their software programs. Computers are used to control large and small machines which in the past were controlled by humans.

Epic Games recently unveiled a remarkable demonstration of its latest real-time digital rendering system called Unreal Engine. Many people use desktop computers at work, home, and school. When most people hear the word computer, they think of a personal computer such as a desktop or laptop.

Put those together and 3DFS is measuring electricity digitally” — easier to use that term than deliver paragraphs of explanations with every mention. SDE is also digital in the sense that it creates a perfect digital representation of the electricity signal, within nanoseconds, upon which it can run algorithms to determine corrections. In that sense, the current (RMS) method of measuring electricity and 3DFS’s are both digital; they both take discrete measurements, the latter just much, much faster.

Such imbalances, Doerfler says, induce neutral current loss on the load side and induce eddy currents and demagnetization losses on the utility side transformer.” That translates directly into power lost to waste, but that loss is not captured in modern power quality ratings. To be somewhat more specific, today’s electricity measurements typically measure harmonics and power factor, combining those for a rating of power quality. As electricity becomes ever-more-central to our lives, and waste becomes ever-more-unconscionable in light of our environmental situation, we will always need more understanding and control over power.

But now that we know it’s possible, it’s difficult to imagine SDE — measuring and managing electricity in real time — failing. He cites the technology trajectory of wifi (one of 3DFS’s engineers was an early wifi pioneer), which was once on track for gigabit wireless in the early 2000s; there would have been no need for fiber at all. 3DFS probably could have cashed out with real-time computing in any number of directions, but they wanted to make sure it was applied to electricity — the big climate problem/opportunity of our age.

With SDE, electricity can operate with perfect digital accuracy. Doerfler says SDE can build a profile of a battery so accurate, we can see dendrites and sulfites growing and can react with corrective action in microseconds.” SDE can supply the battery with perfectly synchronized electricity, eliminating waste heat and extending its life. Heavy, physical use of power, motors and compressors, are going to immediately reduce their energy consumption maybe 20, 25 percent,” Doerfler says, in IT loads and computers, it will be 10 to 15 percent.” But he stresses that those are initial savings; as the AI system learns, it gets more efficient.

3DFS’s ultimate vision is to get the technology small enough to fit on a chip. Theoretically, SDE could ensure that 100 percent of the energy generated by those sources reaches end users, opening the possibility of a nearly lossless electricity system.) (Note: While energy losses converting fossil fuels to steam and then electricity are unavoidable, the same is not true of wind power or solar photovoltaics.

And SDE can eliminate the waste that comes from electricity conversions, like going from DC to AC, which happens in millions of batteries and solar inverters every day. Gaffney is convinced that poor power quality causes the same sorts of problems on the Navy’s new diesel-electric ships that bedevil data centers — breakers flipping, equipment running hot when it shouldn’t, phantom alarms” ringing for no reason. (Gaffney is a certified power quality professional, a certified energy manager, and a certified energy auditor.

When Mike Gaffney, a senior engineer at Navis Energy Management Systems who works on nautical electricity systems, first heard about 3DFS through word of mouth, he recalls, I looked it up and said, ‘Wow, if it works, this would be awesome!’” 3DFS came back a year later with a commercial product and Heuberger agreed to let them demonstrate it in the miniature data center his company has built as a testbed for new products. One of the first data center owners to see the potential of the VectorQ was German-based Freudenberg IT (FIT), a global company that hosts critical software services for a range of Fortune 500 companies like Bridgestone and ABB.

Here’s a video that shows the VectorQ interface as SDE is turned on and off, revealing its effect on power quality (all four videos are worth watching): It cleans up power, provides each attached load with precisely the level and quality of power it needs, reduces consumption, reduces the costs of managing waste heat, and extends the working life of the machines. So 3DFS has developed a line of products called VectorQ, boxes that attach to the electrical panel in a data center and provide it with SDE.

It makes sense: Data centers are big power consumers, and poor power quality costs them money. Not only does this make electricity use more efficient, it gives the system real-time visibility into each load’s performance, which allows it to immediately detect any changes.

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